An April 2019 Analysis by the International Trade Commission on the likely effects of the USMCA estimated that the agreement would increase U.S. real GDP by 0.35 percent if the agreement were fully implemented (six years after ratification) and would increase total U.S. employment by 0.12% (176,000 jobs). [114] [115] The analysis cited by another Congressional Research Service study showed that the agreement would not have a measurable effect on employment, wages or overall economic growth. [114] In the summer of 2019, Larry Kudlow, Trump`s chief economic adviser (the director of the National Economic Council at Trump White House), made unfounded statements about the likely economic impact of the agreement and overstated forecasts related to jobs and GDP growth. [114] During the 2016 presidential campaign, Donald Trump promised to renegotiate NAFTA, which he called „the worst trade deal ever.“ As president, he did. The result is the USMCA, which signed Trump in January and was part of his achievements in his State of the Union address. Manufacturing in Mexico accounts for 17% of GDP. [91] However, Mexican President Andrés Manuel Lupepez Obrador believes that this trade agreement will be a clear positive for the Mexican economy through increased foreign investment, job creation and the expansion of trade. [92] In particular, the chapter has the most robust trade secrets protection of a previous U.S. trade agreement. It includes all the following safeguards against the misuse of trade secrets, including by state-owned enterprises: civil proceedings and remedies, criminal proceedings and sanctions, prohibitions on obstruction of the licensing of trade secrets, judicial proceedings to prevent the disclosure of trade secrets during the judicial proceedings and sanctions against government officials for unauthorized disclosure of trade secrets. During his 2016 election campaign and presidency, Trump sharply criticized NAFTA (it was often called „perhaps the worst trade deal of all time“ [105] and hailed the USMCA as „an excellent deal for all of us.“ [106] However, the USMCA is very similar to nafta, has adopted many identical provisions and has made only modest changes, mostly cosmetic,[107] and is expected to have only a limited economic impact.

[108] Former United States