If a party pretends to negotiate but secretly has no intention of compromising, it is considered a bad faith trader. Bad faith is a concept in negotiation theory in which the parties claim to reach an agreement but do not intend to do so, for example, a political party may claim to compromise without the intention of negotiating in order to achieve political impact. [26] [27] Encourage the other party to do the same for you. People are often reluctant to discuss „what could go wrong“ because they focus on presenting themselves and the merits of the deal in the best possible light. This is especially true for certain cultures and in contexts where competition is fierce. Your counterpart may be thinking, „Why should I talk about problems when my rivals claim things are going to be okay?“ The interdependence of the offers of the two parties and in particular reciprocity are also at the center of several formal models of the negotiation process. The „simple negotiation model“ developed by Bartos (1977) considers negotiations without the potential for integration. Thus, all effective solutions are found on a straight line in the two-dimensional utility space that connects the extreme positions of the two parts. In this case, the solution negotiated by Nash (Nash 1950) corresponds to the center along this line between the minimum acceptable levels of advantage of both parties (which together constitute the point of contention). Since both parts move along the effective boundary, the utility level of one part is a linear transformation of the utility level of the other part. This means that each party can judge on the sole basis of its own utility values whether the adversary has reciprocal concession without explicitly knowing the adversary`s utility function. If both parties start from initial offers that maximize their own benefits (provided that this is also acceptable to the other party) and make equal concessions, the process obviously ends with the nash solution. Assuming a linear relationship between the two utility levels, the model transforms a negotiation situation in the two-dimensional utility space essentially into negotiations on a single topic (which is alternately measured in the utility values of both parties).

Emotions play an important role in the negotiation process, although it is only in recent years that their effect has been studied. .